Excavators come in a wide variety
The smaller ones are called a mini-excavator or compact excavator.
years, hydraulic excavator capabilities have expanded far beyond
excavation tasks. With the advent of hydraulic powered attachments such
as a breaker, a grapple or an auger, the excavator is frequently used in
many applications other than excavation. Many excavators feature
quick-attach mounting systems for simplified attachment mounting,
dramatically increasing the machine's utilization on the job site.
Excavators are usually employed together with loaders and bulldozers. Most wheeled versions, and smaller, compact excavators have a small backfill (or dozer-) blade. This is a horizontal bulldozer-like blade attached to the undercarriage and is used for pushing removed material back into a hole.
Excavators are also called diggers and 360-degree excavators, some times abbreviated simply to a 360. Tracked excavators are sometimes called trackhoes by analogy to the backhoe. Even though the 'back' in backhoe refers to the action of the bucket (which pulls "back" toward the machine) and not the location of the shovel, excavators are also occasionally referred to as fronthoes or even just "hoes" .
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Hydraulic machinery are machines and tools that use fluid power to do the work. Almost all types of heavy equipment is a common example. With this type of equipment, hydraulic fluid is pumped to a high pressure then transmitted through the machine to various actuators.
The hydraulic pumps are powered by engines or electric motors. The pressurized fluid is controlled by the operator with control valves and then distributed through hoses and tubes.
The increasing popularity of hydraulic machinery is due to the large amount of power that is transferred through small tubes and flexible hoses. The high power density and wide array of actuators can make use of this power.
The theory that lies behind hydraulic equipment is fluid pressure. 1. A force that acts on a small area can create a bigger force by acting on a larger area by hydrostatic pressure. 2. A large amount of energy can be carried by a small flow of highly pressurized fluid.
A hydraulic pump will supply the fluid to the components in the system. Pressure in the system will develop in reaction to the load. Pumps have a power density of around ten times greater than an electric motor.
The pumps are powered by an electric motor or engine, which is connected through gears, belts, or a flexible elastomeric coupling to reduce the heavy vibration.
The common types of hydraulic pumps for hydraulic machinery applications include:
1. Gear pump - the gear pump is cheap, durable, and simple. It is less efficient, simply because it is constant displacement and suitable for pressures that are below 3,000 psi.
2. Vane pump - vane pumps are cheap, simple, and reliable. They are good pumps for higher flow low pressure output.
Hoses and tubes:
A hydraulic hose is graded by pressure, temperature, and compatibility of fluid. A rubber interior is surrounded by multiple layers of woven wire and rubber. The exterior of the hose is designed for resistance against abrasion.
The bending radius of the hydraulic hose is designed very carefully into the machine, since a hose failure can be deadly, and violating the minimum bend radius of the hose can also cause failure.
A hydraulic pipe is thick enough to have threads cut into it for connections. It's rarely used for high pressure systems though, which prefer to have tubes or hoses. The pipe itself lends to welding and can also be used to fabricate the manifold.
Hydraulic pipes on the other hand are preferred over hoses whenever possible, as they are simply more durable. Tubes are also preferred over pipes, as they weigh a lot less. Hydraulic tubes will normally have flared ends and captive nuts to make connections. They can also be steel welded with floating nuts and face seal fittings on the ends.
Both tubes and pipes for hydraulic applications traditionally haven't been plated or painted, since the temperature and oil they operate under drive away moisture and reduce the risk of rust.
The fittings with hydraulic machinery serve several purposes:
1. To bride different standards, such as the O-ring boss to JIC or pipe threads to the face seal.
2. Allows proper orientation of components, as a 45 or 90 degree, straight, or even swivel fitting will be chosen as it is needed. They are designed to be positioned in the correct orientation and then tightened as needed.
3. To incorporate bulkhead hardware.
4. A quick disconnect fitting may be added to a machine without having to modify hoses or valves.
EXCAVATION EQUIPMENT INDEX LISTING
Self education or personal use
Loader || Bulldozer
CX330 || Case
CX700 and CX330 || Caterpillar
D-11 || Caterpillar
Caterpillar Equipment || Compact Excavator || Cranes || Hydraulic Machinery || Dump Truck || Easy Site Prep
Forklift || Excavation || Front Loader || Harvester || Equipment Has Changed || Trenchers to Compact Excavators
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